By David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)
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Um. , lymphocytes, etc. Blood cells probably function as in mammals, though the antibody role of lymphocytes has not been demonstrated in frog. CIRCULATION (a) Blood. In amphibians the system is not single, as in fishes, nor yet entirely double, as in mammals, since the heart has a single ventricle. Heart walls receive 0 2 and food solutes from contained blood; there is no coronary system as in higher vertebrates. Aortic arches are symmetrical (compare mammals); conus arteriosus branches into right and left truncus arteriosus, from each of which arises three arches (carotid, systemic and pulmo-cutaneous).
Lymphot lc ducts Translocation Lymph flow No lymph hearts as in amphibians, flow depends on compression of lymphatic ducts by surrounding tissues, aided by valves like those in veins. Contractions of villi (smooth muscle) may have some pumping action. Thus rate of lymph flow may be erratic, faster during exercise. Lymph nodes Occur at intervals along lymph ducts. Invading micro-organisms filtered from lymph, ingested by phagocytes. Lymphocytes in lymph nodes probably play an important early role in antibody production.
I ( . ·.. ~ . ' . ·. ~' . • . - ' . Monocyte Polymorph 15;Um .. 20;Um Lymphocyte 71um PLASMA 90% water; rest: 1. Soluble proteins (albumens, globulins, fibrinogen and prothrombin, and hormones), about 7%. 2. Food solutes (glucose, amino acids, } fatty acids, glycerol). 3. Urea and uric acid. 3% 4. Inorganic salts (Na+ CI- HC0 3- K+ mainly). BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION Red cells are produced at a fairly constant rate from haemopoietic tissue in bone marrow (adult man, about 25 g per day).
Advanced Biology Notes by David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)