By Catford J C
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Extra resources for A Linguistic Theory of Translation
Sco. T h e Standard English system is represented here as contextually 2-dimensional: it embodies two degrees of deixis (I, II) and two numbers (Singular, Plural). E. Scots system is unidimensional, embodying only deixis—3 degrees this time (1, 2, 3). E. Scots system. I t is clear that if we translate from Standard English to Scots we cannot 'transfer meaning'. There is no way in which, for example, Scots that can be said to 'mean the same' as English that or this or these or those. O n a given occasion it may refer to, or be relatable to, the same feature of the situation as one of the English deictics—but its formal and contextual meaning is clearly different.
42 Now suppose the text is translated into Russian as ja prisla. ) (vi) completed on a specific occasion—selection of perfective (determinate) verb-form (as opposed to imperfective) . . etc. 43 Clearly, though the Russian text is a perfectly good translation-equivalent of the English text, it does not 'mean the same'—since it selects as linguistically (contextually) relevant a different set of elements in the situation. , but the list given here is sufficient for o u r purpose. —• j a female ^ ^ x - arrival ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ on foot *""---^^>N.
31 above, but in which the selection of T L equivalents is deliberately confined to one rank (or a few ranks, low in the rank scale) in the hierarchy of grammatical units. We may call this rank-bound translation. T h e cruder attempts at Machine 24 TRANSLATION: DEFINITION AND GENERAL TYPES Translation are rank-bound in this sense, usually at word or morpheme rank; that is, they set up word-to-word or morphemeto-morpheme equivalences, but not equivalences between highrank units such as the group, clause or sentence.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation by Catford J C